Wednesday, 4 January 2012

100 Things You Need to Know About Dreams

100 people:

  1. Sigmund Freud (austrian neurologist)
  2. Ashurbanipal (king of the neo-assyrian empire)
  3. Gilgamesh (5th king of uruk)
  4. Ninsun (gilgamesh's goddess mother)
  5. Jacob (old testament)
  6. Wang Chong (chinese philosopher)
  7. Hypnos (greek god)
  8. Morpheus (greek god of dreams)
  9. Hippocrates (ancient greek physician)
  10. Aristotle (greek philosopher)
  11. Galen (roman philosopher)
  12. Martin Luther (professor of theology)
  13. St Augustine (philosopher & theologian)
  14. St Jerome (theologian & historian)
  15. Carl Jung (swiss psychiatrist)
  16. Alfred Adler (austrian psychotherapist)
  17. Eugene Aserinsky (discovered REM)
  18. J. Allan Hobson (dream researcher)
  19. Robert McCarley (professor of psychiatry)
  20. Mark Solms (psychoanalyst)
  21. Jie Zhang
  22. Eugen Tarnow
  23. Wilder Penfield (neurosurgeon)
  24. Herbert Jasper  (canadian psychologist/neurologist)
  25. Hughlings Jackson (english neurologist)
  26. Deirdre Barrett (Harvard psychologist)
  27. Mark Blechner (american psychologist)
  28. Antti Revonsuo (finnish psychologist)
  29. Y.D. Tsai 
  30. Sandor Ferenczi (hungarian psychoanalyst)
  31. Hartmann 
  32. Joe Griffin (psychologist)
  33. Calvin S. Hall (american psychologist, dream interpretation)
  34. Van de Castle (published 'the content analysis of dreams)
  35. William Domhoff (Hall's protege)
  36. Fritz Perls (german psychiatrist & psychotherapist)
  37. Michael Norton (psychologist of Harvard University)
  38. Carey Morewedge (psychologist of Carnegie Mellon University)
  39. Immanuel Kant (philosopher)
  40. Arthur Schopenhauer (German philosopher)
  41. Charles McCreery (British psychologist & author)
  42. Emile Boirac (french psychic researcher, 'deja vu')
  43. Goya (artist, 'the sleep of reason produces monsters')
  44. Salvador Dali (artist, surrealism, 'dream caused by the flight of a bee around a pomegranate a second before awakening')
  45. Rousseau (artist, 'the dream')
  46. Pablo Picasso (artist, 'le reve')
  47. Chaucer (writer, 'the book of the duchess' & 'piers ploughman')
  48. Lewis Carroll (author, alice's adventures in wonderland)
  49. H.P. Lovecraft (author, 'dreamworld' & 'the neverending story')
  50. Phillip K. Dick (novelist, 'the three stigmata of palmer eldritch' & 'ubik)
  51. Jorge Luis Borges (writer, 'the circular ruins)
  52. Alfred Hitchcock (director, 'Spellbound')
  53. Richard Condon (director, 'the manchurian candidate')
  54. Christopher Nolan (director, 'inception')
  55. Brian de Palma (director, 'carrie')
  56. John Landis (director, 'an american werewolf in london')
  57. Joseph Ruben (director, 'dreamscape')
  58. Wes Craven (director, 'nightmare on elm street')
  59. Peter Weir (director, 'the last wave')
  60. Winsor McCay (cartoonist/animator 'little nemo in slumberland')
  61. Neil Gaiman (graphic novelist, 'the sandman')
  62. Zhuangzi (chinese philosopher)
  63. Rene Descartes (french philosopher, mathematician & writer)
  64. August Strindberg (swedish playwright, coined the term 'dream play')
  65. William Blake (poet, 'a dream' etc)
  66. Man Ray (american artist)
  67. Max Magnus Norman (painter)
  68. Odilon Redon (symbolist painter)
  69. Jonathan Borofsky (sculpter and printmaker)
  70. Jim Shaw (contemporary artist)
  71. David Reisman (artist)
  72. Alan Sweeney (artist)
  73. Robin Whitmore (illustrated daily dreams)
  74. Kevin Coffee (artist)
  75. Karl Linkhart (artist)
  76. Alfredo Arcia (artist)
  77. Sheila Heldebrand Toth (collage)
  78. Samuel Taylor Coleridge (poet, 'Kubla Khan')
  79. Carlos Castaneda (author, 'the art of dreaming')
  80. Paul LaFarge (novelist, 'facts of winter')
  81. Clive Barker (author, director, artist)
  82. Andrei Tarkovsky (director, 'the mirror')
  83. Sergei Parajanov (director, 'shadows of forgotten ancestors')
  84. David Lynch (director, 'blue velvet' 'mulholland drive')
  85. John Sayles (director, 'the brother from another planet')
  86. Akira Kurosawa (director, 'dreams')
  87. Frederico Fellini (director)
  88. Richard Linklater (director, 'waking life')
  89. Michel Gondry (director, 'eternal sunshine of a spotless mind')
  90. Stanley Kubrick (director, 'eyes wide shut')
  91. Julie Doucet (artist, cartoonist)
  92. Jim Woodring (cartoonist)
  93. Jesse Reklaw (cartoonist, 'slow wave')
  94. Aphex Twin aka Richard David James (electronic musician, 'selected ambient works volume II')
  95. Roger Waters (musician, 'the pros and cons of hitchhiking')
  96. Celia Green (writer, 'lucid dreams')
  97. Muse, Matt Bellamy (musician, 'micro cuts')
  98. James Branch Cabell (writer, 'the nightmare has triplets' trilogy)
  99. Alex Garland (writer, 'the coma')
  100. James Joyce (writer, 'finnegans wake')

100 Images:

"Nachtmahr" ("Night-mare"), Johann Heinrich Füssli (1802)

Jacob's dream of a ladder of angels, c. 1690, by Michael Willmann

"The Knight's Dream", 1655, by Antonio de Pereda

"The Dream" by Edouard Detaille. Soldiers dreaming about glory.

Nun's dream by Karl Briullov

Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes: The Dream, 1883

Howard David Johnson

Angela Moore

John Tenniel

Phil Redford - Alberich Instructs Hunding in a Dream, illustration from ''Gotterdammerung'' (linocut)

'it was a dream' Evgeny Kitselev

'dream caused by the flight of a bee around a pomegranate a second before awakening' Dali

'the sleep of reason produces monsters' Goya

 'Spellbound' Alfred Hitchcock

'Inception' Christopher Nolan

'Le Reve' Picasso

'the dream' Rousseau

'little nemo in slumberland' Winsor McCay

Odilon Redon

Neil Gaiman

Jim Shaw

Jonathan Borofsky

Robin Whitmore

Alfredo Arcia

Clive Barker

Eternal Sunshine of a Spotless Mind

Jim Woodring

Jesse Reklaw

Waking Life

Brenda Ferrimani

Zahra AlMufti

Agathe Bennich

Pamela Fingado

Bonnie Bisbee

Betsy Davids

Jane Gifford

Virginia Goodwind

'The Dream' Greno


100 Facts:
  1. You cannot snore and dream at the same time
  2. Adults dream off and on, for a total of about an hour and half to three hours every night
  3. By the time we die, most of us will have spent 25 years asleep, of which 6 years or more will have been spent dreaming
  4. The average person has about 1,460 dreams a year, (about 4 per night)
  5. Scientists suggest that the dreams of fetuses are mostly composed of sound and touch sensations, given the lack of visual stimuli in the womb
  6. About 80% of neonatal and newborn sleep time is REM sleep, suggesting a tremendous amount of time dreaming
  7. Modern research has shown that a sharp decrease in daily calories results in fewer wet dreams in men and an overall decrease in the sexual themes of dreams
  8. Aside from those who experience certain kinds of injury, it’s a biological fact that everyone dreams. However, not everyone remembers his or her dreams
  9. Most of us dream every 90 minutes, and the longest dreams (30-45 minutes) occur in the morning
  10. The scientific study of dreams is known as oneirology
  11. One West African group, the Ashanti, take dreams so seriously that they would allow a husband to take legal action against another man if that man had an erotic dream about his wife
  12. The word “nightmare” derives from the Anglo-Saxon word mare, meaning demon—which is related to the Sanskrit mara, meaning destroyer, and mar, meaning to crush. So the word “nightmare” carries with it connotations of being crushed by demonic forces
  13. Dreams of losing teeth or having teeth extracted can signify many things, including fears of helplessness or of some sort of loss in one’s life. Women experience more teeth dreams than men
  14. Dreams of dirty water may signal that the unconscious mind is telling the dreamer he or she is not healthy
  15. The Buddhist exercise practice of yoga has many benefits, including helping one learn how to control his or her dreams by controlling the body’s vital energies
  16. An alien in a dream may indicate that the dreamer is experiencing difficulty adjusting to new conditions or a new environment, or that his or her personal space is being invaded
  17. Cakes in dreams can signify a time to rejoice at one’s accomplishments, or to celebrate new relationships or work efforts that have been successful but not necessarily acknowledged
  18. Finding oneself in a cemetery during a dream may indicate sadness or unresolved grief. It may also represent one’s “dead” past
  19. Chocolate in a dream may symbolize that the dreamer feels the need to be rewarded and deserves special treatment. It could also mean that the dreamer has been indulging in too many excesses and needs to practice restraint
  20. Standing on a cliff in a dream can represent that one has a broad view of something or that the dreamer feels like he or she is living on the edge or is afraid of failure
  21. William Shakespeare (1564-1616), like his Greek playwright predecessors, used dreams in his dramas to help advance plot and develop characters. For example, dreams in HamletMacbethRichard the IIIRomeo and Juliet, and King Lear offer key psychological and symbolic insights into the motives and internal landscapes of important characters
  22. Colors in dreams can be interpreted only in the context of the dreamer’s relationship with that color. For example, the color red may be experienced as love or sex for one person—but for someone else, red may denote blood or destruction
  23. Large bodies of water often symbolize the unconscious, so dreams of drowning may indicate being overwhelmed by unconscious, repressed issues. Drowning can also symbolize that the dreamer is entering a new stage of development and that the old self is “dying
  24. Feet in dreams can symbolize everything from sex to humiliation. They can also represent mobility, freedom, or a foundation
  25. Forests, like water, are often symbols of the unconscious. Traveling into a forest indicates exploration of the unconscious realm or represents a comforting refuge from the demands of everyday life
  26. A house in a dream is often a symbol of our body, so a mansion in a dream can represent a “rich” or even exaggerated sense of self. A mansion might also represent our future potential
  27. Expectant parents often have dreams about miscarriages, but this is almost always a symbol of their anxiety about the baby rather than a prediction. Miscarriage dreams are also powerful symbols of projects or business deals that have gone wrong
  28. Being naked in a dream suggests exposure of self to others, vulnerability, or feeling ashamed. Alternatively, it can also represent a desire for freedom or being unencumbered
  29. Vampires are important fixtures in folklore, and their appearance in dreams can represent our general fears and anxieties or can embody anxieties about our sexuality
  30. Because nightmares were thought to be from menacing spirits, such as witches, folklore suggests placing a knife under the foot of the bed. Evil spirits were thought to be repelled by the steel on the knife
  31. As related in the epic Gilgamesh, dreams were highly regarded in ancient Mesopotamia as omens of the future or ways in which a dreamer could access other realities, such as the afterlife
  32. In ancient Greece, dreams were regarded as messages from the gods
  33. Falling dreams typically occur at the beginning of the night, in Stage I sleep. These dreams are often accompanied by muscle spasms, called myoclonic jerks, and are common in many mammals
  34. Vitamin B complex (B6) and St. John’s Wort have been shown to produce more vivid dreams
  35. In contrast to modern dream interpretation, which is psychologically oriented, ancient dream interpretation was concerned with discovering clues to the future
  36. The memory-recording processes of the brain seems to switch off during sleep. In so-called non-dreamers, this memory shutdown is more complete than it is for the rest. Dreams may be forgotten because they are incoherent or because they contain repressed material that the conscious mind does not wish to remember
  37. According to psychologists, daydreaming and dreams during sleep may be related, but different cognitive processes seem to be involved
  38. Common dream motifs that transcend cultural and socio-economic boundaries include falling, flying, nakedness in public, and unpreparedness. Such shared dreams arise from experiences and anxieties fundamental to all people
  39. Flying dreams can express both our hopes and fears in life—we can be “flying high” or “risen above” something. Freud associated flying with sexual desire, Alfred Adler with the will to dominate others, and Carl Jung with the desire to break free from restriction
  40. In general, pregnant women remember dreams more than other populations. This is largely due to the extreme hormonal changes during pregnancy
  41. Nicotine patches and even melatonin (an over-the-counter sleep aid) are reported to increase the vividness of dreams and nightmares. The nicotine patch in particular is said to intensify dreams
  42. Drugs that are used for regulating the endocrine system, for controlling blood pressure, and for treating neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease can wreak havoc on form, content, and frequency of dreams
  43. The link between hallucinogenic drugs and dreams has been recognized since the time of oldest societies. Belladonna was the drug of ancient oracles of Delphi, used to induce trances and dreams. The early Persians used Haoma for the same general purpose
  44. Sufferers of epilepsy can have extremely vivid and disturbing nightmares that immediately precede seizures during the night
  45. Hypnagogic hallucinations are dreamlike images and sounds that may occur just as a person is falling asleep or waking up
  46. “Old Hag Syndrome,” or sleep paralysis, occurs in as many as 40% of all people. It happens when a sleeper wakes, recognizes his or her surroundings but is unable to move for as long as a minute. The folklore explanation is that it is caused by a witch, or an old hag, who was coming to get you in your sleep
  47. Even the occasional use of alcohol can have a significant impact on sleep and dreaming. Alcohol slows activity in the cortex, which causes a person to sink into a deep, slow-wave sleep rather than experiencing REM sleep
  48. Birth order influences the role of aggression in dreams. While men typically experience more aggressive dreams than women, a firstborn male typically sees himself in a more positive manner than do his younger male siblings. First-born females tend to have more aggressive characters in their dreams
  49. Modern studies show that children have more animal dreams than adults. The animal figures that occurred most frequently are dogshorses, cats, snakes, bears, lions, and mythical creatures or monsters
  50. Childhood dreams are shorter than adult dreams and nearly 40% of them are nightmares, which may act as a coping mechanism
  51. The Romantic Movement—with its insistence on the unconscious mind as the source of all creativity, art, and even dreams—clearly foreshadowed Sigmund Freud’s groundbreaking work on dreams
  52. South Asian Hindus developed the idea that this world is actually a dream and the “real” reality is somewhere else. The Vedas, the oldest Hindu scriptures (3,000-4,000 years old) suggest that people are reincarnated back into this world, which is a dream, and it’s only after breaking the cycle of reincarnation or “waking up” from this dream world, that they’ll understand the truth and become complete
  53. The Raramuri people of Northern Mexico make their sleeping arrangements so that they can wake during the night to discuss their dreams with one another
  54. The quality of dreams depends, at least in part, on the stage of sleep in which the dreams occur. Dreams during REM tend to be more bizarre and detailed and have story line. Dreams in stages 1 and 2 of sleep are simpler and shorter. Deep-sleep dreams tend to be diffused and may be about nothing more than a color or emotion
  55. Night terrors, or parasomnia, are not the same as nightmares. They are episodes of extreme panic that occur in early sleep and affect from 1%-4% of children between the ages of four and 12. Night terrors are rare in adults and most often occur in those who abuse drugs or alcoholic or have a sleep disorders such as apnea
  56. People who are born blind report no visual imagery in dreams, but they experience a heightened sense of taste, touch, and smell. Those who become sightless between the ages of five and seven may have visual images in their dreams, while those who lose their vision after age seven continue to “see” in their dreams, though images tend to fade as they grow older
  57. Men’s dreams are more often set outdoors, are more action oriented, and involve strangers more often than women’s dreams do. Women’s dreams usually happen indoors and involve emotional encounters with people they know and care about. Men are more likely than women to dream about aggression, misfortune, and negative emotions such as fear, anger, anxiety, or disgust. Women’s dreams are more often friendly and positive
  58. For reasons that are unknown, males dream of males more often than females dream of males. This sexual asymmetry is universal and has emerged from at least 29 different comparisons of male and female dreams—and it holds true for children, adolescents, and adults in all parts of the world
  59. The brain waves that occur during REM and non-REM sleep are found in mammals, birds, and reptiles, but not in amphibians and fish
  60. Various famous authors attribute their classics to dreams. For example, Mary Shelly claimed inspiration for Frankenstein came directly from her nightmares and Robert Lewis Stevenson accredited his classic Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde to the same
  61. Those who watched black-and-white television as youngsters tend to have more monochrome dreams than children who watched color television
  62. Lucid dreaming occurs when there is a state of partial or complete awareness during the dream state. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of using lucid dreaming for the treatment of nightmares and other therapeutic purposes. Anoneironaut is someone who lucidly dreams. The first reference to lucid dreaming is Aristotle’s On Dreams
  63. Chronic smokers who suddenly quit report more vivid dreams than they had when they smoked
  64. If a dreamer is awakened directly from REM sleep, he or she is more likely to remember the dream than if awoken during another stage of sleep or after a complete night’s sleep
  65. When deprived of dreams, individuals become irritable and disoriented, hallucinate, and show signs of psychosis. They will also dream excessively the first chance they get in a phenomenon known as “REM rebound
  66. In a recent sleep study, students who were awakened at the beginning of each dream, but still allowed their 8 hours of sleep, all experienced difficulty in concentration, irritability, hallucinations, and signs of psychosis after only 3 days. When finally allowed their REM sleep the student’s brains made up for lost time by greatly increasing the percentage of sleep spent in the REM stage
  67. Our dreams are frequently full of strangers who play out certain parts – however, your mind is not inventing those faces – they are real faces of real people that you have seen during your life but may not know or remember. 
  68. A full 12% of sighted people dream exclusively in black and white. The remaining number dream in full colour
  69. Dream Incorporation is the experience that most of us have had where a sound from reality is heard in our dream and incorporated in some way. A similar (though less external) example would be when you are physically thirsty and your mind incorporates that feeling in to your dream
  70. Your body is virtually paralyzed during your sleep – most likely to prevent your body from acting out aspects of your dreams. According to the Wikipedia article on dreaming, “Glands begin to secrete a hormone that helps induce sleep and neurons send signals to the spinal cord which cause the body to relax and later become essentially paralyzed.”
  71. Toddlers do not dream about themselves until around the age of 3. From the same age, children typically have many more nightmares than adults do until age 7 or 8
  72. Studies have been done on many different animals, and they all show the same brain waves during dreaming sleep as humans. Watch a dog sleeping sometime. The paws move like they are running and they make yipping sounds as if they are chasing something in a dream
  73. Results of several surveys across large population sets indicate that between 18% and 38% of people have experienced at least one precognitive dream and 70% have experienced déjà  vu. The percentage of persons that believe precognitive dreaming is possible is even higher – ranging from 63% to 98%
  74. one third of your life will be spent asleep
  75. A Dream tends to have two different types of meanings: a general meaning where the dream is told as a symbolic story and an individual meaning, which is specific to the dreamer
  76. Most dreams reflect subjects which are on your mind
  77. Your dream may simply reflect events of your day providing an outlet and safe way of expressing pent up emotions
  78. Dream subjects  include fantasies and frightening elements from the imagination or stimulated by watching movies or television, reading books or even playing computer games
  79. The most common emotion experienced in a dream is anxiety and fear
  80. REM sleep in adults averages 20-25% of total sleep which lasts about 90-120 minutes. REM sleep may help developing brains to mature. Snoring occurs only in non-REM sleep
  81. Up to 70% of females and 65% of males experience recurrent dreams
  82. A daydream is a visionary fantasy experienced whilst awake, the result of the brain mulling over important, but not immediately relevant, issues when their circumstances do not pose interesting and engaging problems
  83. We often even have 4-7 dreams in one night
  84. Five minutes after the end of the dream, 50% of the content is forgotten, after ten minutes 90% is forgotten
  85. Our brain waves are more active when we are dreaming than when we are awake
  86. The average dream lasts between 10 and 15 minutes
  87. Albert Einstein once had a dream in which he was going down a mountainside at night, sledding really fast. After a moment, he realized that the sled was approaching the speed of light, and he could see the appearance of stars change refracting into a brilliant spectrum of colors. His Theory of Relativity was inspired by this dream
  88. Freud theorized that wish fulfillment was behind most dreams. He interpreted dreams as a reflection of the dreamer's deepest desires, going back to their childhood. To Freud, dreams were images that held important meanings
  89. Freud believed most dreams were of a sexual nature
  90. Jung believed dreams were messages to the dreamer and that dreamers should pay attention for their own good. Carl Jung came to believe that dream contents present the dreamer with revelations that uncover and help to resolve emotional issues, problems, religious issues and fears
  91. In 1952, Eugene Aserinsky identified and defined rapid eye movement (REM) sleep while working in the surgery of his PhD adviser. He noticed that the sleepers' eyes fluttered beneath their closed eyelids. Later he used a polygraph machine to record the sleepers' brainwaves during the periods of this activity of their eyes. In one session, he awakened a subject who was wailing and crying out during REM and confirmed his suspicion that dreaming was occurring
  92. While the content of most dreams is dreamt only once, many people experience recurring dreams—that is, the same dream narrative or dreamscape is experienced over different occasions of sleep
  93. Dream control has been reported to improve with practiced deliberate lucid dreaming, but the ability to control aspects of the dream is not necessary for a dream to qualify as "lucid" — a lucid dream is any dream during which the dreamer knows they are dreaming
  94. One theory of déjà vu attributes the feeling of having previously seen or experienced something to having dreamt about a similar situation or place, and forgetting about it until one seems to be mysteriously reminded of the situation or the place while awake
  95. Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family. Sleepwalkers arise from theslow wave sleep stage in a state of low consciousness and perform activities that are usually performed during a state of full consciousness
  96. The ancient Hebrews connected their dreams heavily with their religion, though the Hebrews were monotheistic and believed that dreams were the voice of one god alone
  97. Greek legend states that the god Hypnos made the people sleep by touching them with his magic wand or by fanning them with his wings
  98. The Middle Ages brought a harsh interpretation of dreams. They were seen as evil, and the images as temptations from the devil. Many believed that during sleep, the devil could fill the human mind with corrupting and harmful thoughts
  99. Recent sleep deprivation experiments conducted on rats and other animals have resulted in the deterioration of physiological functioning and actual tissue damage of the animals
  100. a rare sleep disorder causes people to act out their dreams, sometimes with violent thrashes, kicks and screams. Such violent dreams may be an early sign of brain disorders down the line, including Parkinson's disease and dementia, according to research published online July 28, 2010, in the journal Neurology

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