Wednesday, 24 October 2012

Design for Web//Software Workshop

initial reactions to websites:



black 
simple
empty
space
small


it should be the content that makes the design looks good, not the website
the work will make the website look visually appealing




busy
garish
feminine
flashing
grid
squares




photography
speech bubble
german
city
urban




hipster
greyscale
mosaic
illustrator
vintage




vectors
simple
Ikea
Japan




urban
awkward
california
round
waves
pastels


three questions:

what is the purpose of the website you are creating?

who is the target audience?

what do the target audience need?


four restrictions/limitations when building a website:

size
- design for the smallest size, 800 x 600

resolution
- 72ppi/96ppi

fonts
- you have to pay to use fonts commercially
(Times New Roman is the default font for web)
web kit can allow you to embed your fonts into your website

colour
- screen-based media colour mode is RGB
when designing for the internet make sure colours are consistent
use 'web-safe colour' (hexadecimal colour code)


web abbreviations:

HTML- hyper text markup language

CSS- cascading style sheets

WYSIWYG- what you see is what you get

URL- uniform resource locator

FTP- file transfer protocol

CMS- content management system


web design work flow:

brief from client - produce scamps - clients make decision - design is signed off
(after design has been signed off, client has to pay extra if they want it changed)
do they want to manage the content themselves? 
or the designer? (who will get paid for doing this as an extra cost)

web design starting point:

a starting point for a group website being built over the course of the web design software workshops

layout, measurements and grid
WIRE FRAME




Web Design Workshop

the starting point for designing our own personal website:

we began writing up all the things we would include in our own websites, limiting ourselves to 4 or 5 pages and then adding what information we would want displayed


quick sketch of homepage layout:


crit feedback:

- large title: names works well
- alignment would make the design more effective
- inventive design, may be hard to pull off
- really bold will really catch the viewers attention
- large title and name means there is no confusion
- good usability with links
- not sure about the angular shapes but depends on what message you're giving out
- nice idea of featured work
- good to show a range of work
- nice layout that could look great in reality
- unsure about wavy circles
- interesting design, different to others- good thing, eye-catching
- featured work area would look strange of fully covered with work, off balance website?
- like having the name as a large title- stands out obvious who it is
- line up page links so it look neater and more structured 

Tuesday, 23 October 2012

Design for Print Seminar//stock

During this morning's design for print seminar, we looked at various different stocks that we had brought in between us and existing prints and publications showing a range of techniques and materials that can be used

this is an example of a piece of print that has three layers of different coloured stock on top of each other to create the coloured strip on the edge which although looks like quite a minor detail in the photo, it adds an extra dimension to the overall look of the print 


this here is an example of where foiling has been used



an example of coated stock


this flyer has been printed on thick, recycled stock and gives the ink a textured look and feel when printed onto it


an example here of printing on newsprint stock which is very thin and flimsy but useful when producing magazines/publications


this publication here has used bookrum for the front cover which is a very cheap material to use but still gives a professional finish to the overall look



Design for Print//software workshop notes

Booklet Print

setting up the document:

facing pages should be checked
3mm bleed (standard procedure)
number of pages (will be affected depending on how the booklet will be bound)
for saddle stitching- page number should be a multiple of four

readers spreads- shows what the book will look like as you read it on InDesign

printers spreads- how the pages will be arranged on the sheets of paper which are then put together and made into a booklet



to add page numbering, create text frame on the master page (double click) then go onto
type menu- insert special character- markers- current page number

the pages on the rest of the document should now show up with the correct page numbering

if you don't want the page numbering to start right at the beginning, then go onto the document setup and change the 'start page no.'

or select page in the pages palette, go onto the menu and 'numbering and section options' to make alterations with the page numbering

printing:

select file and then 'print booklet'
2 up saddle stitch- print settings
always select print blank pages

'short-edge binding'- if you're binding on the shortest edge of the page
e.g. if its a landscape booklet then binding would be short edge because binding would be down the middle of the width

some printers will request document in printers spreads

print settings in the print dialogue box you can select which printer to use
however above the printer options there is a box called 'postscript file'

72dpi for jpeg files for web

post script is the language that is sent over to the printer which is then recompiled and produces a print out

postscript files similar to a pdf
no need to worry about linked files etc.

7 Things To Know About Print...

based on a model for lithographic printing

COLOUR MODELS:

CMYK- physical
RGB- screen based
hexachrome- printing out in dots
spot colour
Pantone Matching System (PMS)


FORMATS:

standard ISO paper sizes
A & SRA sizes
imperial vs. metric
tabloid- newspaper format, compact version
envelope "c" sizes


STOCK:

weights (gsm)- crucial to the job
finish- gloss/matt/silk/coated/uncoated/recycled (sustainable companies use sustainable ink with stock as well)
laid or wove
boards, carton
plastics and acetates (non-paper based)


ARTWORK:
important process to go through, saves time and money at the printers

document setup- right size...
file formats and fonts- make sure printers have the font, if you've made it yourself then you need to let them know!)
colour specification- make sure stock doesn't affect colour
pre-flight check- get someone else to check it
mock-ups- for size/layout/orientation to see how it looks physically
proof
sign off


PRINT PROCESSES:

lithographic
gravure
screen-print
flexography
pad-printing
six colour
laminate- gloss/matt
foil blocking
embossing/de-bossing
spot UV varnish


FINISHING:

binding- what type?
folding and creasing
die stamping/drilling- should always be discussed with printer


COSTS:

get a quote early on, before you start the job so that you know what you're working to
identical specification for 3 print estimators to work to- get identical quotes, be aware of the impact of special sizes and finishes
learn roughly what things costs (unit cost)
understand viable minimum quantities (large printers won't do it)
extras/authors corrections- very expensive if they make corrections for you
delivery- cost can be very expensive

Wednesday, 17 October 2012

Design for Print Seminar//colour processes

CMYK Process:
refers to the four inks used in colour printing (cyan, magenta, yellow, key)



The CMYK colour model (process colour, four colour) is a subtractive color model, used in colour printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some colour printing: cyanmagenta,yellow, and key (black). Though it varies by print house, press operator, press manufacturer, and press run, ink is typically applied in the order of the abbreviation.
The "K" in CMYK stands for key since in four-colour printing cyan, magenta, and yellow printing plates are carefully keyed or aligned with the key of the black key plate. Some sources suggest that the "K" in CMYK comes from the last letter in "black" and was chosen because B already means blue. However, this explanation, although useful as a mnemonic, is incorrect.
The CMYK model works by partially or entirely masking colours on a lighter, usually white, background. The ink reduces the light that would otherwise be reflected. Such a model is called subtractive because inks "subtract"brightness from white.
In additive colour models such as RGB, white is the "additive" combination of all primary colored lights, while black is the absence of light. In the CMYK model, it is the opposite: white is the natural colour of the paper or other background, while black results from a full combination of coloured inks. To save money on ink, and to produce deeper black tones, unsaturated and dark colours are produced by using black ink instead of the combination of cyan, magenta and yellow.


RGB:


The RGB colour model is an additive colour model in which redgreen, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colours. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colours, red, green, and blue.
The main purpose of the RGB colour model is for the sensing, representation, and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography. Before the electronic age, the RGB colour model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colours.
RGB is a device-dependent colour model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the colour elements (such as phosphors or dyes) and their response to the individual R, G, and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time. Thus an RGB value does not define the same colour across devices without some kind of colour management.
Typical RGB input devices are colour TV and video camerasimage scanners, and digital cameras. Typical RGB output devices are TV sets of various technologies (CRTLCDplasma, etc.), computer and mobile phone displays, video projectors, multicolour LED displays, and large screens such as JumboTron, etc. Colour printers, on the other hand, are not RGB devices, but subtractive colour devices (typically CMYK colour model).
This article discusses concepts common to all the different color spaces that use the RGB colour model, which are used in one implementation or another in colour image-producing technology.


Spot Colour:
in offset printing, a spot colour is any colour generated by an ink (pure of mixed) that is printed using a single run
spot colour can also refer to any colour generated by a non-standard offset ink such as metallic, fluorescent, spot varnish or custom hand-made inks

Generally the cost and potential for problems for a print job increase as one adds more spot colors, due to the increased cost and complexity of added process inks and films, and requiring more runs per finished print. However, because of the complicated process, spot colours are effective at preventing forgeries of moneypassports, bonds and other important documents. 

Duotone:
the halftone reproduction of an image using the superimposition of one contrasting colour halftone over another colour halftone
used to bring out middle tones and highlights of an image
tritones and quadtones can also be created 


Monochrome:
print in one colour or shades of one colour
A monochromatic object or image has colours in shades of limited colors or hues. Images using only shades of grey (with or without black and/or white) are called grayscale or black-and-white. However, scientifically speaking, "Monochromatic light" refers to light of a narrow frequency.

Tints and Shades:
a tint is the mixture of a colour with white- increases lightness
a shade is the mixture of a colour with black- reduces lightness

Pantone:
coding system for different ink colours 
when a printer uses Pantone colours, he buys that specific ink and loads it into his press

the PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM®:
always show your true colors
The accuracy of colour is critical in design. Because what you see on your monitor is never what will appear on a printed sheet, designers need a standardized color key.
It can be very frustrating to see the logo you worked hard to create look deep blue on the client's letterhead, blue-greenish on his business card, and light blue on his very expensive envelopes.
A way to prevent this is by using a standardized color matching system, such as the PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM. Though PANTONE is not the only color standardization system, it is the most widely used and the one that most printers understand. Aside from being able to have consistency, PANTONE Colors allow you to use colors that cannot be mixed in CMYK.

Tuesday, 16 October 2012

Design for Print//software workshop

InDesign

primary text frame: 
useful for a document with mostly text (and a lot of text) allows the text to flow across all the pages, if there aren't enough pages, primary text frame adds any other necessary pages 

print- marks and bleed- include slug area
(to print anything in slug area)



master page:
every new document has one master page and all other pages are based on it
master page, similar to a template
anything placed on master page will be included in other pages
e.g. page numbering, headers...

double click on the master page to locate it, then anything added to that page (such as, a black rectangle) this will appear on all other pages


command+shift to delete/unlock a master page item on any page

pages menu- new master 
to add a new master page
useful for when there are different repeated pages through document
e.g. chapter headings

command+shift+ < or >
shortcut to resize text

Applying Colour

new colour swatches (from swatch menu)
same as in Illustrator

to cerate a tint, select colour in swatch library then in the menu option select new tint swatch and adjust tint slider


Considerations for...

PHOTOSHOP
1) cmyk or greyscale
2) 300 dpi
3) actual size images
4) save as psd or tiff file
(psd- transparency)

ILLUSTRATOR
1) cmyk
2) AI or copy+paste

...when preparing for print

if a duotone image is placed into an InDesign file, then the spot colours used will automatically appear in the swatch library

in order to apply a spot colour to an image when working in InDesign, select the circles within the image box and change colour using swatch library
will only work with greyscale TIFF files


you can use the links panel to update or adjust the image
right click on image for menu selection


or hold down alt and double click on image for it to open in Preview/Photoshop
settings can be changed with regards to what programme is used when TIFF file is opened


a direct link can now be created
so when image is updated on Photoshop, it will automatically update on InDesign file also


to remove a background on a Photoshop image, double click on the layer and click ok, then use the magic wand tool to select background and simply delete
when saving a file that uses transparency then make sure that file is saved as a PSD


Separating the Colours

window- output- separations preview


each individual colour channel is displayed as a greyscale image, showing how much of that particular colour will be used and where it will be applied during the printing process


it is important to remember not to include any unused spot colours from the swatches palette otherwise it could be used to create a positive- they need to be deleted

window- output- attributes
allows for overprint (when you want colours to merge or if a specific spot colour is used as a signifier to the printer for a spot varnish to be printed)

will only be able to preview when in separations preview